Zulfiqar Rana, MD, MPH, FACP

Board Certified in Internal Medicine



Attendance requirements:

See the “Guidelines” section, please.


  • Know the differential for dyspnea
  • Know how to differentiate between cardiac, non-cardiac, and other causes of dyspnea.
  • Know how to approach a patient with dyspnea.
  • Know basic signs, symptoms, and treatment of other medical conditions in the differential.

Required reading:

Harrison’s chapter on dyspnea

Suggested reading:

Please use the text of your choice, e.g., UpToDate, Step-up to Medicine, Harrison’s, etc.

  • Asthma,
  • COPD,
  • bronchiectasis
  • pneumonia
  • pulmonary hypertension
  • SVC syndrome
  • CAD, cardiomyopathy
  • pericarditis

Student Slides:

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