Zulfiqar Rana, MD, MPH, FACP

Board Certified in Internal Medicine

Fluid and Sodium balance 1

Fluid balance and Hyponatremia

Attendance requirements:

See the “Guidelines” section, please.


  • Know the differential for this condition
  • Know how to approach a patient with this condition.
  • Know basic signs, symptoms, and treatment of other medical conditions in the differential.

Required reading:

  • Harrison’s chapter on Fluid and electrolyte disturbances.
  • UpToDate: Overview of the treatment of hyponatremia in adults. Please look at the algorithm.
  • Also, review the “student slides” below.

Suggested reading:

Please use the text of your choice, e.g., UpToDate, Step-up to Medicine, Harrison’s, etc.

  • Water balance
  • Hyponatremia

Student Slides:

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