Zulfiqar Rana, MD, MPH, FACP

Board Certified in Internal Medicine


Hypoxia evaluation

Attendance requirements:

Please see the “Guidelines” section.


  • Know the differential for this condition
  • Know how to approach a patient with this condition.
  • Know basic signs, symptoms, and treatment of other medical conditions in the differential.

Required reading:

  • Harrison’s chapter on Hypoxia.
  • UpToDate: Evaluation and management of the nonventilated, hospitalized adult patient with acute hypoxemia
    Please look at the algorithm below.
  • Also, review other “student slides” below. Know the differential and work-up algorithm!

Suggested reading:

Please use the text of your choice, e.g., UpToDate, Step-up to Medicine, Harrison’s, etc.

  • Pathophysiology of Hypoxia
  • Concept of V/Q mismatch and shunts
  • How to calculate A-a gradient

Student Slides:


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